Fig. 1.Model for an IFN-α competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network against miR-1270. Following SeV infection, specific subsets of IFN-α asRNAs (-α1, -α7, -α8, -α10 and -α14) as well as IFN-α mRNAs (-α8, -α10, -α14 and -α17), which share MRE-1270s, form a ceRNA network to titrate away miR-1270 from IFN-α1 mRNA, allowing for its expression. Several cellular mRNAs, including CAPRIN1 mRNA, which share MRE-1270s, also participate in the network. Further, upon recognition of the IFN-α1 mRNA/BSL region, IFN-α1 asRNA increases the stability of the mRNA . Figure and legend reproduced from Kimura et al. with permission.
Fig. 2.In vivo evaluation of asORN3 against respiratory influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR/8) virus infection. A Effect of nasally administered asORN3 on gp (guinea pig)IFN-α1 asRNA and gpIFN-α1 mRNA expression levels. PLGA-asORN3 (closed bars) or -ncasORN (open bars) was nasally administered to groups of guinea pigs (four animals per group) 6 h prior to PR/8 virus infection. Half of the guinea pigs that received PLGA-asORN3 were further administered PLGA-asORN3 (grey bars) 18 h after virus infection. The larynx and trachea tissues were collected at various time points ranging from 0 to 48 h after virus infection. The tissue samples were subsequently subjected to strand-specific RT-qPCR analyses for gpIFN-α1 asRNA (top) and gpIFN-α1 mRNA (bottom) expression levels. The results are presented as “Mean copy number of gpIFN-α1 asRNA or mRNA/100 ng of total cellular RNA” ± SEM of four samples. Representative values of three independent experiments are presented. Error bars cannot be seen if they are smaller than the graph symbols. B Effect of nasally administered asORN3 on PR/8 virus proliferation profile. PLGA-asORN3 (closed or grey bars) or PLGA-ncasORN (open bars) was nasally administered. The nasal and tracheal washes were collected at various time points as described in the legend to A and were subjected to PR/8 virus titration to monitor the viral proliferation profile in the upper and lower respiratory pathways. The results are presented as “Mean titers (×105 pfu/ml)” ± SEM of four samples. Representative values of three independent experiments are presented. Figure and legend reproduced with modifications from Sakamoto et al.  with permission